Las Catalinas Climate
Las Catalinas has two very distinct seasons, a wet one and a dry one. Both are quite wonderful. The dry season begins in early to mid-November and runs until about the second week of May. During this time it will barely rain at all. Humidity drops, things become quite dry, the dry Papagayo Wind blows from the east, and sunny weather is a given every day. Average highs are from high 80s to low 90s, and average lows are in the low to mid 70s In the wet season there is generally a predictable daily pattern of sunny mornings followed by a buildup of clouds in the afternoon and possibly rain. Average highs are mid to high 80s, and average lows are mid to low 70s.
The dry season ("Gold Season") begins in mid-November as the humidity drops and the easterly Papagayo Wind begins to establish itself. The early part of the dry season is the best, in my opinion. December through February every day is pretty much guaranteed perfect - clear skies, nice dry breeze, and comfortably warm temperatures. Later in the dry season the Payapgayo Wind starts to peter out, the humidity begins to rise, and it gets somewhat hotter. The hottest month of the year is April, and then in early May it begins to rain.
During the dry season some trees lose their leaves, and this is the time of year when the wonderful flowering trees of Guanacaste put on their show. As the season progresses a large variety of trees blossom in a range of whites, yellows, purples, and reds. The landscape is dry and delicate looking. As time goes by I find it more and more interesting and beautiful.
The wet season usually begins quite suddenly around the second week of May, and when it does it is a welcome event for man, beast, and plant. The dry landscape once again becomes a brilliant green in a shockingly short period of time. Actually many of the trees which have dropped their leaves anticipate the beginning of the rain and sprout their leaves again before it even begins. There is a spike of rainfall in late May and early June which thoroughly rehydrates everyone and everything. Then from mid-June through mid-August there is a lull in the rainfall that lines up perfectly with summer vacation times for us in more northerly latitudes. For many locals this is their favorite time of year. Mornings are predictably sunny. By noon we typically pick up a fresh onshore breeze. In the afternoon it may well cloud up and on some days we'll get impressive, primally powerful rains that are a joy to watch.
The peak of the rainy season is from mid-September through October. This is the time we are most likely to get a "temporal", which is the local name for a lasting rain that set in for several days. Often these rains are associated with hurricane activity in the Caribbean - we don't get the hurricanes (ever) but they can set up a weather pattern that brings sustained rains.
There is an astoundingly large variation in climate within Costa Rica. Last January I about froze my posterior off up in Monteverde in cold, misting rain while it was sunny and mid-80s down in Las Catalinas (just 67 miles away). This is normal! But even within the beach area of Guanacaste there is a substantial variation in climate within short distances.
This is largely due to the influence of the Papagayo Wind. During the winter months high pressure in the Caribbean sends the wind rushing through the few gaps that exists in the Central American Cordillera. One of these gaps is just north of Las Catalinas, over the lakes of Nicaragua. In the vicinity of Las Catalinas this leads to dry weather and low humidity as the moisture is wrung out of the atmosphere by passing over the Guanacaste volcanoes - Tenorio, Miravalles, Rincon de la Vieja, and Orosi.
Las Catalinas is very much in the sweet spot regarding the Papagayo Wind. Tamarindo is only 13 miles south of Las Catalinas, but the Papagayo Wind is not as much of a factor there and it receives substantially more rainfall than we do. As one heads farther down the coast from there it becomes increasingly wet and humid. Heading north the Papagayo Peninsula is only 11 miles away, but from that point northwards the Papagayo wind is dramatically stronger. North of the Santa Elena Peninsula (29 miles away) the wind is so strong that that it frequently blows the warm surface water of the ocean out to sea leading to upwelling of cold water by the shore which can make the water too cold for swimming.
More detail on the Papagayo Wind can be found here.
Here is a chart of average high and low temperatures and rainfall for Liberia that I found on Weather Underground. I'm curious about how the climate in Las Catalinas differs from that in Liberia. We have a weather station for Las Catalinas en route that will help us answer that question more definitively. I suspect we have a slightly narrower range of temperatures, somewhat less rainfall, and a different wind pattern due to onshore winds that are typical on many afternoons due to thermal current in response to heating of the air over land.
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